How Do You Repair Harm from Microaggressions?

If you’ve ever said or heard something offensive and didn’t know what to do, you are not alone. It’s one thing to recognize insults. It’s another to respond in ways that repair the harm. People may mean well when they say, “I don’t see color.” Or “He’s not a typical gay guy.” Or “What she is trying to say is…”  Many times, they aren’t even aware of how much pain these messages can stimulate. It can be shocking to learn that our positive intentions are experienced as painfully racist, homophobic or sexist.

Below are a few examples of microaggressions, the positive intention of the speaker and the painful impact on the receiver.

Responses to microaggressions vary widely. By far, the most common response to microaggressions is silence, which may be interpreted as agreement or approval. In that way, our silence compounds the harm. However, we can learn to find our voice, express our pain, repair the damage, and prevent further harm.  

Whenever we interact with people who experience a long history of oppression based on race, gender, sexual orientation, religion or physical ability, it is inevitable that our intentions are sometimes very different from our impact. We are trying to help, but we fumble and people get hurt. All over the world people are part of oppressive systems that do harm. So how do we repair the damage and support healing?

With a lot of humility we can explore ways to respond when repair is needed. When pain surfaces or trauma is re-stimulated in a group, we can let our heart strings go out to everyone involved. We can ensure that everyone experiences care, especially the people who have a long history of being crushed by oppression.

Difference between Responding as Ally or as a Recipient of Harm

  • As the Recipient: When the microaggression harms you, prioritize your emotional well-being. Decide if you want to confront the issue or seek support. If you choose to respond, you can use observations, feelings, needs and request (OFNR) to explain how the comment or action affected you and how it was harmful.
  • As an Ally: When the microaggression is against someone else, focus on supporting those who are harmed, challenging the behavior, and using OFNR and your position to educate or advocate for awareness, care and liberatory practices It’s about taking a stand for the people who are harmed, but talking about the impact on you.

From here we can advocate for collective liberation by standing in solidarity, amplifying marginalized voices, advocating for change, building community, and supporting restorative practices,

Whether you are a witness or the one who said the harmful words, you can help repair the damage when you:

1. Self-connect

2. Empathize

3. Intervene 

4. Express regret

5. Rebuild trust


“If we give our children sound self-love, they will be able to deal with whatever life puts before them.” bell hooks

Whether you’ve done harm or stood by when someone else did harm, you can self- connect and hold yourself gently in spite of your shortcomings. As soon as possible you can turn your attention to the receiver of hurtful behaviors. You can always come back later to do your inner work to change your behavior, including:

  • Look inside and self-empathize with the pain and shame that arises when you do harm.
  • When you have done something that is interpreted as sexist, racist, homophobic, etc., take responsibility for your impact.
  • Do your own work. Identify how you reinforce oppression and perpetuate the loss of dignity and respect of people from marginalized groups.
  • Stop trying to be seen as a “good person” or a “savior” and mourn the harm done by you, others, and systems of oppression.
  • Lean into your discomfort and recognize the moment as an opportunity for growth and reflection.
  • Whether you are called out, or called in, welcome the exploration and do the important work of interrupting your harmful beliefs and biases.


“What I want in my life is compassion, a flow between myself and others based on a mutual giving from the heart.” ― Marshall B. Rosenberg

When hurt arises or trauma is re-stimulated, you can empathize with the person who experienced harm.

  • Set the intention to connect, even if you don’t agree, or you experience the situation very differently,
  • Witness the harm done. Be present and listen deeply.
  • Focus on the impact of the harm, not the positive intention of the person doing the harm.
  • Take in the pain and any feedback. Really take it in at the soul level.
  • Believe their experience. Do not debate or require proof of injury. Do not ask folks to share their observations or interpret their experience differently.
  • De-center your own feelings and instead center the folks who experience historic oppression.
  • Listen deeply. Rather than suppress emotions, create brave space for pain to be expressed.
  • Encourage full expression and amplification of the hurt, grief, despair, and rage connected to oppression. Respect that is might not feel safe enough for the person who experienced harm to express their feelings. 
  • Thank the people who do the heavy lifting of sharing their emotional pain, because it can take a lot of courage to speak up about microaggressions.
  • Empathize with the receiver of the harm, rather than defend, explain, dismiss, discount or divert.
  • Accept feedback with grace, curiosity and real gratitude. 
  • Ask if there is more… And keep asking until the person feels completely heard.


“Liberation means you don’t have to be silenced.” Toni Morrison

Silence and inaction can suggest approval, so you can intervene to prevent further damage.

  • Stop holding back when you feel the sting of oppression. 
  • Intervene early and often.
  • Don’t wait until you know exactly what to say.
  • Center people who are “othered”.
  • Simultaneously hold those who did the harm with care, without shame or blame.
  • Speak for yourself; not on behalf of others.
  • Recognize that interventions can be challenging, and it’s so important and so fulfilling to be part of re-creating the narrative.
  • Avoid the temptation to walk away if you are a member of the dominant group.


“I’m sorry that you were offended,” is the worst apology ever.  “I’m sorry if you were offended” doesn’t cut it either. Franchesca Ramsey

When someone experiences harm, you can slow down, reflect deeply, take responsibility, and express regret authentically. 

  • Focus on your impact. Avoid defending or explaining your positive intention.
  • Take responsibility for the harm you have done and make a commitment to change your behavior.
  • Express regret from the heart, without trying to be the fixer.
  • Don’t expect the receiver of the harm will shift, become your friend, teach you, or take care of your feelings.  
  • Make amends by sharing what you plan to do differently. 
  • Create accountability structures to repair harm from the past and reduce harm in the future.
  • Don’t expect forgiveness, empathy, or understanding from the person harmed.
  • Move on. 


“Liberated relationships are one of the ways we actually create abundant justice, the understanding that there is enough attention, care, resource, and connection for all of us to access belonging, to be in our dignity, and to be safe in community.” ― Adrienne Maree Brown

An apology doesn’t always make the relationship better right away. The person you’ve harmed may or may not want to be in relationship with you, now or ever. Respect their choices. If they express an interest in rebuilding trust, you can honor the cycle of relationship which can include harmony, conflict, tension, pain, and healing. To increase resilience, you can:

  • Be wary of your desire to be understood by those who have experienced microaggressions from you. 
  • Avoid asking if they want to hear your experience, which can unravel the repair work already done.
  • Only share your experience if the wounded person has received plenty of empathy and asks about you.
  • If you sense any reluctance to hear your experience, offer deeper empathy instead.
  • Respect their direct or subtle “no” and get empathy for yourself somewhere else.
  • Instead of forcing reconnection, create spaciousness for delayed gratification.
  • Don’t expect trust to be rebuilt immediately or ever; instead rely on many small acts of respect to support healing over time.

When you are the receiver of microaggressions, notice the tendency to gaslight yourself, which can include blaming yourself, doubting your experience, asking if you heard that right, or silencing yourself. When you notice these behaviors, you can then seek out internal and external resources: ask for support, speak from the heart and heal.

When you’ve noticed a need for repair work, what has worked or not worked for you?

Written by Martha Lasley, with a lot of gratitude to all the people who have contributed to this piece: Kawtar El Aloui, Roxy Manning, James-Olivia Hillman, Anita Pottekkatt, Kanya Likanasudh, Corirose Benitez Anjali.